Cancer Prevention Month & World Cancer Day Awareness Campaign

National cancer prevention month awareness campaign.

Cancer Prevention Month & World Cancer Day Awareness Campaign

Created by the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), National Cancer Prevention Month (NCPM) is observed every February and promotes modifiable health behaviors to reduce the risk of cancer through factors like commercial tobacco use, physical inactivity, excessive sun exposure and vaccinations.1

World Cancer Day is observed worldwide on February 4. It is an initiative by the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) to build global cancer awareness, inspire change and mobilize action.2 Each World Cancer Day has a theme, such as health equity, barriers to care, advocacy and leadership engagement The 2024 theme is “Close the Care Gap”.3

Data and Statistics

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide4 and is the second-leading cause of death in the United States.5 In 2020, there were about 1.6 million new cancer diagnoses in the U.S. and about 600,000 deaths.5 The global cancer burden is estimated to increase to almost 30 million annual cancer cases and 16 million cancer-related deaths by 2040.6

Cancer affects all communities, but the rates of cancer occurrence and deaths differ greatly based on socioeconomic status, race, gender, sexual orientation, age, disability and other factors.7 Social determinants of health can contribute to developing cancer and impact treatment outcomes.7 Examples of social determinants of health are:8

  • Education and literacy
  • Transportation access
  • Healthy food access
  • Healthcare access
  • Housing stability and safety
  • Cleanliness of air and water

Behavior changes do not address the socioeconomic and environmental factors that contribute to a person’s cancer risk. However, starting and keeping up with healthier behaviors can lower the risk of getting certain cancers.9

Best Practices for Communicating About Cancer Prevention

Know your audience.

  1. Identify and define your audience. Dividing your audience into smaller groups can help you focus your efforts based on a population’s specific needs or behaviors.
  2. Understand where your intended audience gets information, such as specific media outlets and social platforms, and find out who influences their health behaviors.

Use health literacy best practices.

  1. Use plain, simple language to improve the understanding of scientific information.10 Make sure the information is still accurate when written in plain language.
  2. Organize information so the most important points are first.
  3. If presenting data, use whole numbers instead of decimals, as they are more easily remembered.11
  4. Represent data visually. Icon arrays (a graphic using repeated symbols to illustrate statistics) are effective for communicating numbers in a real-world context.12
  5. Direct audiences to supporting materials, visuals and reliable sources of information such as trusted websites or physicians.
  6. Provide health information in languages appropriate for the intended audience. Communicating in various languages can increase diverse patient satisfaction and improve health outcomes.13
  7. Clearly tell your audience what they should do rather than what they should not do.

Use narrative storytelling.

  1. Use narratives to encourage early detection and prevention behaviors. Narrative storytelling can increase comprehension and improve recall.14 Narratives can also help people overcome health literacy challenges, as they can deliver complex information in a style that audiences recognize.15
  2. Use culturally appropriate health promotion messages in narratives, as they may be more effective at encouraging behavior change.16
  3. Create narratives with audio and video, as they are more effective than non-narrative film or text narratives alone.17

Demonstrate cultural humility.

  1. Cultural humility refers to the willingness to honor cultural beliefs, engage in self-reflection and continue learning.18
  2. Commit to ongoing learning of cultural and social factors that may affect your audience’s behaviors, needs and communication styles.18
  3. Craft culturally sensitive messages. This requires considering and respecting a person’s preferences, values, cultural traditions, language and socioeconomic conditions.18
  4. Incorporate cultural norms, values and religious beliefs into health messages, as this may be more effective than those that incorporate only risk statistics of certain groups.19
  5. Avoid generalizations when communicating across population groups. Intersectional identities, or the overlap of social categories, may influence the health circumstances of people within the same community, as well as how they receive information.20
  6. If you are crafting multilingual messages, use a culturally competent translator or interpreter instead of automated translation services.21 Words often have different meanings in different cultures, even within the same language.

Leverage community and media partnerships.

  1. Collaborate with organizations that have existing relationships with the communities you want to reach.
  2. Join existing movements and conversations (such as World Cancer Day) to increase your reach. Use relevant hashtags to increase the reach of your messages.
  3. Form community partnerships across other sectors, such as business, labor, civic/social, urban planners, education, transportation, housing, and public safety. Partnerships with community-based organizations who serve specific populations can help healthcare organizations increase capacity and address health inequities.22
  4. Understand how different disciplines of health can work together when addressing Social Determinants of Health that influence multiple health outcomes.
  5. Partner with local media to increase attention around health issues. This can improve knowledge and access to information across a wide variety of communities.23

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Communicating with Diverse Audiences

Consider the information most useful for specific populations. Tailor communication to where these communities live, learn, work and play. Refer to and adapt the National Networks’ existing resources.

The following recommendations are based on general cancer risks and trends for each audience. You can use our inventory of awareness campaigns for additional cancer-specific research and strategies. Messages within other awareness campaigns may be cross-posted during Cancer Prevention Month and World Cancer Day with the addition of relevant hashtags like #cancerpreventionmonth, #worldcancerday and #IAmAndIWill.

Black/African American Persons

  • Address known health disparities affecting Black individuals and offer solutions. For example, non-Hispanic Black people are more likely to be diagnosed with colorectal cancer at a later stage than non-Hispanic White people.24 Black people are also less likely to be up-to-date on colon cancer screenings because of factors linked to socioeconomic status, including access to healthy foods, insurance coverage and affordability of care.24 Share colon cancer information, recommended screening schedules, behaviors that can reduce colon cancer risk, and examples of PSE initiatives to expand screening access.

LGBTQI+ Persons

  • Address known health disparities affecting LGBTQI+ individuals and offer solutions. For example, commercial tobacco product use is higher among LGBTQI+ people (25.1%) than cisgender heterosexual adults (18.8%) due to discrimination-related stress and decades of targeted marketing by big tobacco. Remind providers to refer LGBTQI+ people to cessation counseling, services and medications.
  • Communicate the importance of culturally-affirming care. Stigma experienced by LGBTQI+ patients may prevent some individuals from seeking healthcare.26
  • Share best practices for creating a welcoming environment for LGBTQI+ people. Stay up-to-date on best practices by referencing the cancer continuum guidelines from the National LGBT Cancer Network, or complete the brief online training for providing culturally humble care to LGBTQI+ people.
  • Highlight barriers to quality care, such as fear or history of discrimination in healthcare settings,27 and share resources to address them. Organizations like the GW Cancer Center and the National LGBT Cancer Network offer trainings, provider directories and peer support groups.

Hispanic/Latino/a/x Persons

  • Address known health disparities affecting Hispanic and Latino/a/x individuals and offer solutions. For example, because prostate cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death among this population,28 remind providers to educate patients on prostate cancer symptoms.
  • Provide health information in Spanish. Research shows that people with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) are less likely to utilize health services due to factors such as difficulty communicating with doctors and a lack of certified interpreters.29

AANHPI (Asian American, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander) Persons

  • Address known health disparities affecting AANHPI individuals and offer solutions. For example, female breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer among this population.28 Encourage providers to share information on breast cancer screening with AANHPI patients.
  • Tailor messages to specific AANHPI subgroups. Cancer risk and incidence varies greatly between AANHPI subgroups and ethnicities.30,31
  • Encourage the availability and distribution of health information in multiple Asian languages based on who lives in your area.

AI/AN (American Indian, Alaska Native) Persons

  • Address known health disparities affecting AI/AN individuals and offer solutions. For example, AI/AN people have the highest rates of chronic Hepatitis C (HCV), which can cause liver cancer.32 Higher HCV rates among AI/AN people are caused by factors such as an increase in opioid use which increases risk of infection, and a lack of access to HCV screenings.33,34 Encourage policy, systems and environmental (PSE) changes to increase access to HCV screenings in tribal areas.
  • Craft messages informed by the lived experiences of AI/AN cancer survivors, spiritual leaders and community and ceremonial elders. Factors such as separation from family and tribal communities can leave patients feeling spiritually vulnerable and may deter patients from seeking or continuing care.35

Ability Status

  • Make messages accessible to people with disabilities whenever possible to reduce disparities in health care access.36 Examples of accessible formats are braille, American Sign Language, large print text, closed captioning, audio descriptions and plain language.20

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Sample Messages and Graphics

Download All Messages and Graphics How to Post on Social Media

Topics

Suggested Images

Topic: Engage providers in Cancer Prevention Month
February is National #CancerPreventionMonth! Optimizing your health and wellbeing can go a long way toward reducing the risk of getting certain #cancer types. Share these key messages with providers and patients this month—and all year long!

#cdc #dcpc #cctprevention

National cancer prevention month.

Topic: Engage providers in World Cancer Day
February 4 is #WorldCancerDay, a day for raising awareness about the global #cancer burden and mobilizing action to create a future without cancer. Observing this occasion is easy. Share cancer information in accessible formats, like the infographic you see here! https://tinyurl.com/yckukd63

#cdc #dcpc #cctprevention

World cancer day.

Topic: Encourage PSE changes to improve health outcomes for AI/AN people
Want to make #PSE changes to improve the health of American Indian and Alaska Natives during #CancerPreventionMonth? You don’t have to do it alone. The American Indian Cancer Foundation partners with organizations and Native organizations to provide culturally appropriate PSE guidance. Learn more here: https://tinyurl.com/454hyr36

#cdc #dcpc #cctprevention #aianhealth

Culture is prevention.

Topic: Promote awareness of the link between HCV and liver cancer
Because #HepatitisC infects the liver, it can increase a person’s risk of developing #livercancer. There’s no cure for HCV, but these simple steps can protect individuals and their families from infection.

#cdc #dcpc #cctprevention

Protect yourself from HCV

Topic: Encourage providers to share at-home physical activity
Sweeping, vacuuming and yard work may sound like chores, but they can easily become opportunities for physical activity. Health.gov’s free Move Your Way activity planner helps people create #exercise plans based on personal needs and physical settings. Share this resource to encourage healthy behaviors and reduce #obesity-related cancer risk. https://tinyurl.com/49xyfdp8

#cdc #dcpc #cctprevention

Working out at home.

Topic: Share strategies related to social determinants of health
Factors like #healthcare access, economic stability, neighborhood environment, education access and more can dramatically affect a person’s health. In turn, they can affect a person’s risk of getting cancer. Consider strategies like these to help patients overcome common social barriers to health.

#cdc #dcpc #cctprevention

Strategies to help patients overcome social barriers to health.

Topic: Share commercial tobacco cessation resources for LGBTQI+ people
#DidYouKnow that #LGBTQI people are more likely to smoke commercial #tobacco than heterosexual people due to decades of targeted marketing from big tobacco? The National LGBT Cancer Network offers an Outlast Tobacco quitline to provide culturally competent, compassionate guidance to form a quit plan. Share this resource during #CancerPreventionMonth! https://tinyurl.com/mr5zv86y

#cdc #dcpc #cctprevention #ccttobacco

Tobacco alternatives.

Topic: Share tips for caring for LGBTQI+ patients
If #LGBTQI people are concerned about unsafe medical environments, they are more likely to avoid healthcare—which means fewer cancer screenings and later detection. Follow these simple steps from the National LGBT Cancer Network to create a welcoming environment for people of various sexual and gender identities.

#cdc #dcpc #cctprevention #lgbthealth

Creating a welcoming environment for LGBTQI+ patients

Topic: Share resources for discussing prostate cancer
Questions about #prostatecancer? Talk to Nathan! This interactive service from the CDC can help patients decide when to get screened and prepare for conversations with your doctor. Nathan can also prepare providers for conversations with patients. https://tinyurl.com/cr6u6d4p

#cdc #dcpc #cctprevention #lgbthealth

Talk to someone about Prostate Cancer.

Topic: Promote behaviors and practices to reduce risk of prostate cancer
Healthy behaviors and diets can decrease the risk of getting #prostatecancer. Share these tips with patients looking for ways to reduce their prostate cancer risk.

#cdc #dcpc #cctprevention

Tips for reducing prostate cancer risk.

Topic: Use narratives to communicate important health information
Narrative #storytelling is a powerful tool for sharing health information. Narratives are engaging, relatable and easier to understand than informational writing. For example, you can share stories and videos from the CDC Tips campaign to help people understand the impacts of commercial #tobacco use on diverse populations. https://tinyurl.com/57dp7ux6

#cdc #dcpc #cctprevention

Tips for tobacco cessation.

Topic: Share examples of effective community partnerships and PSE changes
By leveraging #partnerships and engaging the community, the Kentucky Cancer Consortium increased statewide #colorectalcancer screenings and decreased incidence and mortality. Learn more about this transformative initiative and start building your own partnerships today! https://tinyurl.com/5dctb2vz

#cdc #dcpc #cctprevention #psechange

Community partnerships can transform public health.

Topic: Promote HPV vaccinations as a form of cancer prevention
During National #CancerPreventionMonth, we’re reminding everyone that getting the #HPV vaccine is in every person’s best interest. Share these fast facts to help patients understand how the HPV vaccine can protect them from several types of #cancer.

#cdc #dcpc #cctprevention #ccthpv

Protections of HPV vaccine.

Topic: Share multi-lingual cancer information
Language barriers can result in worse health outcomes. To make sure everyone has access to clear information during #CancerPreventionMonth, share these #multilingual cancer resources from the American Cancer Society. https://tinyurl.com/ywn749zx

#cdc #dcpc #cctprevention

Don't let language barriers cause cancer disparitires!

Topic: Share information about sun safety
Practicing #sunsafety is an easy way to prevent #skincancer. Share these tips from the CDC to encourage UV protection during work and play. You can even share this information in video form at https://tinyurl.com/3ccr6mym

#cdc #dcpc #cctprevention

Sun safety tips.

Topic: Communicate the link between Adverse Childhood Experiences and cancer
Adverse childhood experiences (known as ACEs) may be linked to getting cancer later in life. Communities can help prevent ACEs and reduce the harm they cause. Learn more at http://tinyurl.com/543udhzc

#cdc #dcpc #cctprevention

Adverse childhood experiences can cause toxic stress.

Topic: Raise awareness about testing for radon
Lung cancer deaths from radon exposure are preventable if more people take action to reduce radon levels in homes, buildings, and schools. Raising awareness about radon saves lives. Spread the word for #RadonAwarenessWeek https://bit.ly/3Viw5mr

#cdc #dcpc #cctprevention

Radon FAQ

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Download All Messages and Graphics How to Post on Social Media

How to Post to Social Media

Start by downloading the ZIP file above. Then double click the downloaded file to unzip and open the folder. Inside, you’ll find three CSV files.

  • Messaging.csv contains captions for all messages in the toolkit, organized by topic.
  • Bulk - Instagram.csv contains captions for all Instagram messages, along with graphics URLs that can be used to bulk schedule both text and images.
  • Bulk - LinkedIn-Facebook.csv contains captions for all LinkedIn, Facebook, and Twitter messages, along with graphics URLs that can be used to bulk schedule both text and images.
  • Bulk - Twitter.csv contains captions for all Twitter messages, along with graphics URLs that can be used to bulk schedule both text and images.

Inside the main folder, you’ll also see two sub-folders containing the messaging graphics for all major platforms. The first folder contains rectangular images suited for use on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. The second folder contains square images suited for Instagram.

Select your platform below for additional instructions.

Facebook

  1. Download the suggested graphic.
  2. Highlight the corresponding message with your cursor. Right click and select “Copy.”
  3. Open Facebook. If you aren’t already logged in, enter your email address (or phone number) and password, then tap “Log in.”
  4. Tap the post box. This box is at the top of the News Feed. If you're posting to a group, you’ll find the box just below the cover photo. There will generally be a phrase like “Write something”or “What’s on your mind?” in the box.
  5. Tap “Photo/Video” near the middle of the post screen, then select the downloaded graphic to upload and tap “Done.” Doing so adds the photo to your post.
  6. Tap “Post.” It’s in the top-right corner of the screen from the app, or the bottom-right from your computer. Doing so will create your post and add it to the page you’re on.

Twitter

  1. Download the suggested graphic.
  2. Highlight the corresponding message with your cursor. Right click and select “Copy.”
  3. Open Twitter. If you aren’t already logged in, enter your email address and password, then tap “Log in.”
  4. Tap the post button. This button is at the bottom right of the News Feed. There will generally be a phrase like “What’s happening?” in the box.
  5. Tap the camera icon near the middle of the post screen, or the picture icon in the bottom left of the post screen then select the downloaded graphic to upload, and add the post caption.
  6. Tap “Tweet.” It’s in the top-right corner of the screen from the app, or the bottom-right from your computer. Doing so will create your post and add it to the page you’re on.

Instagram

  1. Download the suggested graphic.
  2. Highlight the corresponding message with your cursor. Right click and select “Copy.”
  3. Open Instagram. If you aren’t already logged in, enter your username (or phone number) and password, then tap “Log in.”
  4. Tap the plus sign box. This box is at the top right. Select the downloaded graphic or drag it into the box to upload it.
  5. Select “Square (1:1)” for the aspect ratio, then click “Next.”
  6. Ignore the filters screen, then click “Next” again.
  7. Paste the caption where it says, “Write a caption…” at the top.
  8. Under “Accessibility,” consider adding alt text to describe the photo for people with visual impairments.
  9. Tap “Share.” It's in the bottom-right corner of the screen.

LinkedIn

  1. Download the suggested graphic.
  2. Highlight the corresponding message with your cursor. Right click and select “Copy.”
  3. Open LinkedIn. If you aren’t already logged in, enter your email address and password, then tap “Log in.”
  4. Tap “Start a post” from the main share box. This box is at the top of your profile.
  5. Tap “Photo” from the top of the post screen, then select the downloaded graphic to upload and tap “Done.” Doing so adds the photo to your post.
  6. Tap “Post.” It's in the the bottom-right. Doing so will create your post and add it to the page you’re on.

Bulk Scheduling

Social media management tools like Hootsuite and Sprout Social offer bulk scheduling options for uploading multiple messages at once. The spreadsheets included in the download can be adapted to fit multiple scheduling platforms or services. They are currently formatted to work with Sprout Social’s bulk scheduling option. Please review the bulk scheduling format requirements for your specific platform before posting. Messages are sorted by network.

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Cancer Resources

Resource

Description

Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer (NCI)

Providing information about types of cancers, treatment choices, coping and support resources, survivorship care planning, end-of-life care decisions and more.

African American Breast Cancer Alliance

A network creating culturally specific and outreach to promote breast health awareness, patient support and advocacy for African American breast cancer patients, survivors and their families.

American Indian Cancer Foundation

A collaborative organization that brings attention to Indigenous cancer burdens and solutions, advances capacity through training, technical assistance and culturally-tailored resources, and increases availability of reliable Native-focused cancer data and solutions.

AMIGAS

A CDC bilingual educational outreach intervention designed to help community health workers increase cervical cancer screening among Hispanic and Latino/a/x people.

APPEAL

A national health justice organization working to advance equity in tobacco control and health for Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders and other underserved communities.

Arab-American Family Support Center

A non-profit organization providing culturally and linguistically competent, trauma-informed, multigenerational social services to help Arab, Middle Eastern, North African, Muslim, and South Asian (AMENAMSA) immigrant and refugee communities find healthy paths to success and fulfillment.

Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum

A health advocacy organization influencing policy, mobilizing communities, and strengthening programs and organizations to improve the health of Asian Americans & Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders.

Asian American Cancer Support Network

A community network providing educational and supportive resources for Asian Americans affected by cancer.

Asian Health Coalition

A coalition of community-based organizations working to eliminate health disparities among AANHPI and other communities of color by supporting the development and implementation of culturally and linguistically appropriate health programs and initiatives.

Black Women’s Health Imperative

A program delivering evidence-based strategies, programs and advocacy to solve health issues that affect Black women and girls in the U.S.

Center for Black Health & Equity

A nationally recognized public health entity facilitating programs and services that promote health equity for Black and African American people, including tobacco cessation education and initiatives.

CDC Health Literacy Communication Tactics

Recommendations from the CDC on ways to improve health literacy practices in patient messaging.

CDC Plain Language Materials & Resources

Resources and examples to help healthcare professionals implement plain language practices in patient communications.

Comprehensive Cancer Control Plan Tip Sheets

Tip Sheets from ACS that are designed to help CCC program staff, coalition staff, and volunteers update CCC plans.

FORCE

A group improving the lives of individuals and families facing hereditary cancer through education, advocacy, and research.

Foundation for Women’s Cancer

Providing education and increasing awareness about gynecologic cancer risk, prevention, early detection and treatment.

Gay and Lesbian Medical Association

A group dedicated to ensuring health equity for LGBTQ+ people through research, advocacy, and education. GLMA also shares resources for both patients and providers caring for LGBTQ+ people.

GW Cancer Center Health Awareness Campaigns

A collection of research- and evidence-based toolkits to help cancer control professionals communicate about cancer and cancer-related diseases.

GW Cancer Center Cancer Survivorship E-Learning Series

A series of free online courses designed to help primary care providers care for survivors of adult-onset cancers.

Indian Country ECHO

An organization offering a variety of no-cost services to expand American Indian and Alaska Native peoples’ access to high-quality specialized care.

Indian Health Service

A government agency providing federal health services to American Indians and Alaska Natives.

Latinas Contra Cancer

An organization working to eliminate health inequities by identifying and removing the obstacles Latino/a/x populations that are medically underserved face within healthcare systems.

Livestrong Fertility

Helping cancer survivors navigate fertility preservation with information, resources and reduced-cost preservation options.

National Behavioral Health Network

A network that empowers and prepares a wide range of stakeholders to prevent and reduce tobacco use and cancer among adults with mental illnesses and substance use disorders.

National Cancer Institute

Providing resources for both patients and providers to help them understand prostate cancer, treatments, screenings, and statistics.

National Children’s Cancer Society

Providing information during and after treatment, financial support, scholarship resources, survivor stories and more.

National Comprehensive Cancer Network

The latest guidelines for the clinical management of various cancers.

National LGBT Cancer Network

Improving the lives of LGBTQI+ cancer survivors through advocacy, education and training.

Nuestras Voces

An initiative of the CDC’s Networking2Save consortium of national networks implementing population-specific and public health-oriented strategies to impact the prevalence of commercial tobacco use and tobacco related cancers.

Nueva Vida

A nonprofit organization providing free, comprehensive, and culturally competent services to inform, support, and empower Latino/a/x families in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area whose lives are affected by cancer.

PlainLanguage.gov

Government guidelines for using plain language with discussions of each subtopic.

SAGE for LGBTQI+ Elders

A national advocacy and services organization working to ensure a fulfilling future for the aging LGBTQI+ population.

Talk to Nathan

A CDC resource that provides interactive conversations for both patients and providers to help make decisions about prostate cancer screening and/or treatment.

Together, Equitable, Accessible, Meaningful (TEAM) Training

A training offered by the GW Cancer Center that aims to provide health care professionals with knowledge and strategies to support patient-provider communication and employ culturally competent practices.

Welcoming Spaces:Treating Your LGBTQ+ Patient

A LGBTQ+ Cultural Humility training for healthcare professionals developed by the National LGBT Cancer Network in collaboration with the Society of Gynecologic Oncology.

ZERO Prostate Cancer

Advancing prostate cancer awareness and working to end health disparities affecting Black patients. ZERO also connects patients and mentors to financial resources, support groups, and educational resources, with some specific to Black patients and LGBTQ+ patients.

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References

  1. February is National Cancer Prevention Month. American Association for Cancer Research (AACR). Accessed August 16, 2023. https://www.aacr.org/patients-caregivers/awareness-months/national-cancer-prevention-month/
  2. World Cancer Day: a leading international awareness day. Accessed August 16, 2023. https://www.worldcancerday.org/about-us
  3. World Cancer Day Campaign Theme. Accessed August 16, 2023. https://www.worldcancerday.org/about/2022-2024-world-cancer-day-campaign
  4. World Health Organization. Cancer. World Health Organization. Published February 3, 2022. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cancer
  5. U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group. U.S. Cancer Statistics Data Visualizations Tool, based on 2022 submission data (1999-2020): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute; https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/dataviz, released in June 2023.
  6. National Cancer Institute. Cancer Statistics. National Cancer Institute. Published September 25, 2020. https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/understanding/statistics
  7. Equity: What It Means in Cancer Prevention and Control | CDC. www.cdc.gov. Published January 12, 2022. https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/health-equity/equity.htm
  8. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Social determinants of health. Healthy People 2030. Published 2020. https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/social-determinants-health
  9. CDC. Healthy Choices to Lower Your Cancer Risk. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Published August 21, 2019. https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/dcpc/prevention/other.htm
  10. plainlanguage.gov | Why use plain language? www.plainlanguage.gov. https://www.plainlanguage.gov/about/benefits/
  11. Witteman HO, Zikmund-Fisher BJ, Waters EA, Gavaruzzi T, Fagerlin A. Risk Estimates From an Online Risk Calculator Are More Believable and Recalled Better When Expressed as Integers. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2011;13(3):e54. doi:https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.1656
  12. Fansher M, Adkins TJ, Lalwani P, et al. Icon arrays reduce concern over COVID-19 vaccine side effects: a randomized control study. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications. 2022;7(1). doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/s41235-022-00387-5
  13. Al Shamsi H, Almutairi AG, Al Mashrafi S, Al Kalbani T. Implications of Language Barriers for Healthcare: A Systematic Review. Oman Med J. 2020;35(2):e122. Published 2020 Apr 30. doi:10.5001/omj.2020.40
  14. Mar RA, Li J, Nguyen ATP, Ta CP. Memory and comprehension of narrative versus expository texts: A meta-analysis. Psychon Bull Rev. 2021;28(3):732-749. doi:10.3758/s13423-020-01853-1
  15. Moran MB, Frank LB, Chatterjee JS, Murphy ST, Baezconde-Garbanati L. A pilot test of the acceptability and efficacy of narrative and non-narrative health education materials in a low health literacy population. J Commun Healthc. 2016;9(1):40-48. doi:10.1080/17538068.2015.1126995
  16. Flynn PM, Betancourt H, Emerson ND, Nunez EI, Nance CM. Health professional cultural competence reduces the psychological and behavioral impact of negative healthcare encounters. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. 2019;26(3). doi:https://doi.org/10.1037/cdp0000295
  17. F, Sheer VC, Li R. Impact of Narratives on Persuasion in Health Communication: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Advertising. 2015;44(2):105-113. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.2015.1018467
  18. Stubbe DE. Practicing Cultural Competence and Cultural Humility in the Care of Diverse Patients. Focus (Am Psychiatr Publ). 2020;18(1):49-51. doi:10.1176/appi.focus.20190041
  19. Huang Y, Shen F. Effects of Cultural Tailoring on Persuasion in Cancer Communication: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Communication. 2016;66(4):694-715. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/jcom.12243
  20. CDC. CDC’s Health Equity Guiding Principles for Inclusive Communication. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Published August 24, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/healthcommunication/Health_Equity_Lens.html
  21. CDC. Culture & Health Literacy. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Published 2019. https://www.cdc.gov/healthliteracy/culture.html
  22. Advancing Partnerships between Health Care and Community-Based Organizations to Address Social Determinants of Health: Executive Summary. Center for Health Care Strategies; 2018. Accessed August 3, 2023. https://www.chcs.org/media/KP-CBO-Exec-Summ__080918.pdf
  23. Viswanath K, Emmons KM. Message Effects and Social Determinants of Health: Its Application to Cancer Disparities. Journal of Communication. 2006;56(suppl_1):S238-S264. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2006.00292.x
  24. Colorectal Cancer Rates Higher in African Americans, Rising in Younger People. www.cancer.org. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/latest-news/colorectal-cancer-rates-higher-in-african-americans-rising-in-younger-people…
  25. CDC. Unfair and Unjust Practices Harm LGBTQ+ People and Drive Health Disparities | CDC. www.cdc.gov. Published June 27, 2022. https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/health-equity/lgbtq/unfair-and-unjust.html
  26. Ayhan CHB, Bilgin H, Uluman OT, Sukut O, Yilmaz S, Buzlu S. A Systematic Review of the Discrimination Against Sexual and Gender Minority in Health Care Settings. International Journal of Health Services. 2020;50(1):44-61. doi:10.1177/0020731419885093
  27. National LGBT Cancer Network Barriers to Health Care. cancer-network.org. https://cancer-network.org/cancer-information/cancer-and-the-lgbt-community/barriers-to-health-care/
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  29. Hall IJ, Rim SH, Dasari S. Preventive care use among Hispanic adults with limited comfort speaking English: An analysis of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data. Prev Med. 2022;159:107042. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2022.107042
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